Research

Reduction of Cholesterol

Scientific studies have demonstrated that a daily intake of a minimum of 3 g of barley beta-glucan, the active ingredient found in NutraStat Cereal and Drink Mix, help to reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol). These biomarkers are recognized as risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. Studies including over 1000 subjects normo- and hypercholesterolaemic have shown that barley beta-glucan lowered total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations by ~0.32 mmol/L and ~0.27 mmol/L, respectively between 4 and 12 weeks. HDL-cholesterol concentrations were not affected.

  1. AbuMweis SS, Jew S and Ames NP. (2010). Beta-glucan from barley and its lipid lowering capacity: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64, 1472-1480. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20924392

  2. Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J. (2004a). Diets containing barley significantly reduce lipids in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80, 1185-1193. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15531664

  3. Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J. (2004b). Lipids significantly reduced by diets containing barley in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. The Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 23, 55-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14963054

  4. Bourdon I, Yokoyama W, Davis P, Hudson C, Backus R, Richter D, Knuckles B, Schneeman B. (1999). Postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin responses in men fed barley pasta enriched with β-glucan. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(1):55–63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9925123

  5. Keenan JM, Goulson M, Shamliyan T, Knutson N, Kolberg L, Curry L. (2007). The effects of concentrated barley beta-glucan on blood lipids in a population of hypercholesterolaemic men and women. British Journal of Nutrition, 97(6):1162-1168. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17445284

  6. Li J, Kaneko T, Qin LQ, Wang J, Wang Y. (2003). Effects of barley intake on glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism, and bowel function in women. Nutrition, 19(11-12):926-929. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14624940

  7. Newman RK, Lewis SE, Newman CW, Boik RJ, Ramage RT. (1989). Hypocholesterolemic effect of barley foods on healthy men. Nutrition reports international, 39, 749-760. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US8922720

  8. McIntosh GH, Whyte J, MvArthur R, Nestel PJ. (1991). Barley and wheat foods: Influence on plasma cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53, 1205-1209. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1850576

  9. Narain JP, Shukla K, Bijlani RL, Kochhar KP, Karmarkar MG, Bala S, Srivastava LM, Reddy KS. (1992). Metabolic responses to a four-week barley supplement. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 43:41-46. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09637489209027531?journalCode=iijf20

  10. Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Monteferrario F, Klersy C, Cazzola R, Cestaro B. (2011).  Beta-glucan- or rice bran-enriched foods: a comparative crossover clinical trial on lipidic pattern in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65(7):864-71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505506

  11. Sima P, Vannucci L, and Vetvicka V. (2018). β-glucans and cholesterol (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 41(4): 1799–1808. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5810204/

  12. Shimizu C, Kihara M, Aoe S, Araki S, Ito K, Hayashi K, Watari J, Sakata Y, Ikegami S. (2008). Effect of high β-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentrations and visceral fat area in Japanese men – a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 63, 21-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18074229

  13. Talati R, Baker WL, Pabilonia MS, White CM and Coleman CI. (2009). The Effects of Barley-Derived Soluble Fiber on Serum Lipids. Annals of Family Medicine, 7, 157-163. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273871

 

Reduction of Post-prandial Glycemic Responses

Barley beta-glucan, the active ingredient found in NutraStat Cereal and Drink Mix, decreases postprandial glycemic responses, without disproportionally increasing post-prandial insulinemic responses, at doses of at least 4 g per 30 g of available carbohydrates. Studies including type 2 diabetic men have shown that the intake of a low-glycemic index breakfast containing a modest amount (3 g) of beta-glucan for 4 weeks allows good glycemic control. Diets high in barley beta-glucan can benefit patients with diabetes and individuals predisposed to metabolic disease.

  1. Alminger M, Eklund-Jonsson C. (2008). Whole-grain cereal products based on a high-fibre barley or oat genotype lower post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. European Journal of Nutrition, 47(6):294–300. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18633670

  2. Battilana P, Ornstein K, Minehira K, Schwarz JM, Acheson K, Schneiter P, Burri J, Jequier E and Tappy L. (2001). Mechanisms of action of beta-glucan in postprandial glucose metabolism in healthy men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55, 327-333. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11378805

  3. Bays H, Frestedt JL, Bell M, Williams C, Kolberg L, Schmelzer W, Anderson JW. (2011).  Reduced viscosity Barley B-Glucan versus placebo: a randomized controlled trial of the effects on insulin sensitivity for individuals at risk for diabetes mellitus. Nutrition Metabolism, 16:8:58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3170576/

  4. Behall KM, Scholfield DJ and Hallfrisch J. (2005). Comparison of hormone and glucose responses of overweight women to barley and oats. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 24, 182-188. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15930484

  5. Bourdon I, Yokoyama W, Davis P, Hudson C, Backus R, Richter D, Knuckles B, Schneeman B. (1999). Postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin responses in men fed barley pasta enriched with β-glucan. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(1):55–63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9925123

  6. Cavallero A, Empilli S, Brighenti F, Stanca AM. (2002). High (1→3,1→4)-β-glucan barley fractions in bread making and their effects on human glycemic response. Journal of Cereal Science, 36(1):59–66. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0733521002904546

  7. Casiraghi MC, Garsetti M, Testolin G, Brighenti F. (2006). Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan. The Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 25(4):313-20. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16943453

  8. Hinata M, Ono M, Midorikawa S, Nakanishi K. (2007). Metabolic improvement of male prisoners with type 2 diabetes in Fukushima Prison, Japan. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 77: 327–332. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17208326

  9. Kabir M, Oppert JM, Vidal H, Bruzzo F, Fiquet C, Wursch P, Slama G, Rizkalla SW. (2002). Four-week low-glycemic index breakfast with a modest amount of soluble fibers in type 2 diabetic men. Metabolism, 51(7):819-826. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12077724

  10. Kim H, Stote KS, Behall KM, Spears K, Vinyard B, Conway JM. (2009). Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, beta-glucan: a dose response study in obese women with increased risk for insulin resistance. European Journal of Nutrition. 48(3):170-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19205780

  11. Liljeberg HG, Granfeldt YE and Bjorck IM. (1996). Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition, 126, 458-466. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8632219

  12. Narain JP, Shukla  K, Bijlani RL, Kochhar KP, Karmarkar MG, Bala S, Srivastava LM, Reddy KS. (1992). Metabolic responses to a four-week barley supplement. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 43:41-46. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09637489209027531?journalCode=iijf20

  13. Östman  E,  Rossi E,  Larsson  H,  Brighenti  F and  Bjorck  I. (2006).  Glucose  and  insulin responses in healthy  men  to  barley  bread  with  different  levels  of  (1→3;1  →4)-β-glucans; predictions  using fluidity measurements of in vitro enzyme digests. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 230-236. https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037394768

  14. Pins, J and Kaur H. (2006). A review of the effects of barley beta-glucan on cardiovascular and diabetic risk. Cereal Foods World, 51, 1-11. https://www.aaccnet.org/publications/plexus/cfw/pastissues/2006/Documents/CFW-51-0008.pdf

  15. Tappy L, Gugolz E and Wursch P. (1996). Effects of breakfast cereals containing various amounts of beta-glucan fibers on plasma glucose and insulin responses in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care, 19, 831-834. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/19/8/831

  16. Tosh SM. (2013). Review of human studies investigating the post-prandial blood-glucose lowering ability of oat and barley food products. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Nature 67: 310–317. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23422921

  17. Wursch P and Pi-Sunyer FX. (1997). The role of viscous soluble fiber in the metabolic control of diabetes. A review with special emphasis on cereals rich in beta-glucan. Diabetes Care, 20, 1774- 1780. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9353622

  18. Yokoyama WH, Hudson CA, Knucles BE, Chiu MCM, Sayre RN, Turnlund JR and Schneeman BO. (1997). Effect of barley β-glucan in durum wheat pasta on human glycemic response. Cereal Chemistry, 74, 293-296. http://www.aaccnet.org/publications/cc/1997/May/Pages/74_3_293.aspx

Gut Health and Satiety

Barley beta-glucan contained in NutraStat Cereal and Drink Mix, is a source of dietary fibre that helps to support and maintain a healthy digestive system. Barley beta-glucan has shown in vivo effects on intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and beneficial bacterial population such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB possess potential health benefits such as control of intestinal infections and improved digestion of lactose. In terms of satiety, research has shown that the consumption of barley beta-glucan increases the viscosity of the digesta. Higher viscosity delays gastric emptying and slows the metabolism and absorption of nutrients, more precisely glucose, due to reduced enzymatic activity and mucosal absorption, leading to early satiety sensations.

  1. Arena M, Caggianiello G,Fiocco D, Russo P,Torelli M, Spano G, Capozz V. (2014). Barley β-Glucans-Containing Food Enhances Probiotic Performances of Beneficial Bacteria. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 15(2): 3025–3039. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24562330

  2. Carlson J, Erickson J, Hess J, Gould T, Slavin J. (2017). Prebiotic Dietary Fiber and Gut Health: Comparing the in Vitro Fermentations of Beta-Glucan, Inulin and Xylooligosaccharide. Nutrients, 9(12): 1361. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29244718

  3. De Angelis M, Montemurno E, Vannini L, Cosola C, Cavallo N, Gozzi G, Maranzano V, Di Cagno R, Gobbetti M, Gesualdo L. (2015). Effect of whole-grain barley on human fecal microbiota and metabolome. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 7945-7956. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616929/

  4. Gilliland S. Health and nutritional benefits from lactic acid bacteria. (1990). FEMS Microbiology Letters, 87(1–2): 175-188. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/037810979090705U

  5. Health Canada. Monograph Betaglucan. (2013). http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=beta.glucane&lang=eng

  6. Mitsou EK, Panopoulou N, Turunen K Spiliotis V, Kyriacou A. (2010). Prebiotic potential of barley derived beta-glucan at low intake levels: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study. Food Research International, 43: 1086–1092. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20103230495

  7. Wang Y, Ames N, Li S, Jones P, and Khafipour E. (2014). High molecular weight barley β-glucan supports bacterial populations beneficial for gut health. The faseb Journal, 28:1 supplement. https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.28.1_supplement.647.45

  8. El Khoury D, Cuda C, Luhovyy B, Anderson G. (2011). Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol 2012, 28p. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2012/851362/

  9. Schroeder N, Gallaher DD, Arndt EA, Marquart L. (2009). Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake. Appetite. 53(3):363–369. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19643157

  10. Vitaglione P, Lumaga RB, Montagnese C, Messia MC, Marconi E, Scalfi L. (2010). Satiating effect of a barley beta-glucan-enriched snack. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 29(2):113–121. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07315724.2010.10719824

  11. Vitaglione P, Lumaga RB, Stanzione A, Scalfi L, Fogliano V. (2009). β-Glucan-enriched bread reduces energy intake and modifies plasma ghrelin and peptide YY concentrations in the short term. Appetite, 53(3):338–344. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19631705